Libros de Segunda Mano (posteriores a ) – Literatura – Ensayo: Vocabulario de las instituciones indoeuropeas. emile benveniste. editorial taurus. tdk la puesta en cuestión de aquello que está 7 Cf. a este respecto Emile Benveniste, Vocabulario de las Instituciones indoeuropeas, Madrid , (trad. de la ed. Benveniste, E., Vocabulario de las instituciones indoeuropeas, Madrid (Le vocabulaire des institutions indo-européennes, Paris ). Béquignon, Y.
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University of Winsconsin Press, The book provides an introduction to the major theoretical issues and modes of cinematic narration. Part I deals with theories of narration, mimetic and diegetic. Part II with narration and film form: Part III deals with the major historical modes of cinematic narration: Paragraph-initial numbers correspond to the pagination of this edition.
Introduction Three possible approaches to narrative: Bordwell starts from Formalist aesthetics, which “encourages the breaking of arbitrary boundaries among theory, history, and criticism” There is a relational and functional but not an essential difference between poetic language and practical language.
Sets of conventions, modes, are known to both filmmakers and audiences. There are four major modes: Mimetic theories of narration 3- Back to Aristotle. Mimetic theories of narration take the act of vision as model; perspective is a key term. Stage and perspective in drama, and framing of fiction. Western perspective closes off the subject from the object, while “Tarabukin contended that Oriental inverse perspective placed the spectator at the center of a scene that surounded him”.
In modern staging, the Renaissance proscenium roughly equals a “windowpane” pictorial perspective. The central point of view is occupied by the ruler’s box in the auditorium. Perspective is a mental, not an optic system. Perspective and Point of View in Literature.
Books by Émile Benveniste (Author of Problèmes de linguistique générale, 1)
Traditionally, mimetic theories have been proposed Henry James, etc. Percy Lubbock places emphasis on the dramatic mode, and opposes it to the pictorial method. The novel is a synthesis of both. The Invisible Observer Cinema theories, beforeare mimetic. An invisible observer is created.
Pudovkin, who conceives “an observer ideally mobile in space and time” — equivalent to a narrator, an “all-purpose answer to problems involving space, authority, point of view, and narration”.
But they must limit the awareness of the camera’s omniscience. Narration as Scenography Eisenstein pushes the mimetic position to an extreme—using a “cinematic” stage, etc.
The “dialectical” approach to shooting and editing mimes the stream of consciousness, etc. Narration conceived as an expressive representation of the story action. Eisenstein versus the notion of an invisible witness: Staging is conceived as the first ideological processing—he speaks of mise-en-scene but also mise en jeu, mise en geste, mise en cadre.
There are even self-reflexive or metafilmic moves. Eisenstein sets the bases for a future theory of film narration.
Priority is given to the poet’s voice. Brecht brings out the diegetic element in drama. Emphasis on process and play.
Formalists spoke of the poetic use of film—they seek equivalents for literary devices. But they lack a fully developed linguistic theory of cinema or literature—which would have to wait for the structuralists. In film, the camera instituciines equals this metalanguage. Bordwell pro Bakhtin’s dialogism: Every language is a system of languages.
Bordwell is against the notion of privileging the camera work over other film techniques. There is an interplay of narrational factors, not a single “metalanguage”. Benveniste is not very consistent.
dd According to Kerbrat-Orecchioni, after Benveniste, the study of enunciation derives into the study of the marks of enunciation. Derivations from Benveniste are to be found in Barthes and Genette.
He proceeds to track discursive signs. Metz confuses discours with enunciation itself. There is an absence of benvenkste for applying linguistic categories in enunciation theories of film ; they make for a troublesome translation. Camera work and editing, the two techniques privileged by the invisible observer model, become the principal bases of enunciation However, they are not integrated.
Mimetic assumption “that shots create invisible observers and that editing creates ideal ones”. He is against the unjustifiable privileging of certain techniques over others. Inndoeuropeas Viewer’s Activity The viewer’s activity is mostly ignored by mimetic and enunciation theories. The spectator is conceived as a “victim or dupe of narratorial illusion-making”. A film uses the spectator to execute a definable variety of operations”.
Bordwell’s aim is to explain the viewing, not the interpreting, of films. Although the discussion of different styles and narrational modes inevitably moves somewhat in the direction of historical or cultural semiotics ]. A Sketch for a Psychology of Film Perception and Cognition Constructivism conceived of “perceiving and thinking as vocabulari, goal-oriented processes”, carried out through inference-making.
There are top-down and bottom-up institucionee processes whether the basis for the inference is some hypothesis, or sense data. The artwork encourages certain schemata. Aesthetic perception is nonpractical— Attention is turned to the process itself; repertoires of schemata are altered. Narrative Comprehension “The viewer must take as a central cognitive goal the construction of a more or less intelligible story”.
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Analogy of psycholinguistic accounts of language comprehension. Goal orientation is a basic scheme at least in Western culture. Motivation is used as a procedure by the audience. There are several types of motivation: These involve stylistic schemata, often processed unconsciously “owing to the stylistic uniformity of mainstream cinema”. The process of viewing involves the construction of assumptions, inferences, hypotheses Meir Sternberg’s account of narrative processing.
There is a hierarchy in these processes, e. Perception takes into account the primacy effect. There are effects of retardation, the creation of curiosity, the grounding of further hypotheses on those hypotheses which have been confirmed All of which applies to perception and understanding in general, but: Emotion is linked to comprehension. For instance in [ paralepses – although again this term is not used by Bordwell ]. Principles of Narration A description of the viewer’s responses must not be confused with criticism of the film — We must take into account that “most work of narrative comprehension seems to occur in what Freud called the preconscious, the realm of elements ‘capable of entering consciousness’.
Narration as “a process which is not in its basic aims specific to any medium”. Fabula, Syuzhet, and Style Back to Aristotle again.
Fabula understood as something constructed by the perceiver.
It is embodied in verbal synopse. As to “style”, it is “the film’s systematic use of cinematic devices”.
The perceiver, given a benvenists text, is invited to recognize a syuzhet and infer a fabula from it whereas the artist constructs a syuzhet according to assumptions about how the spectator could infer a fabula from it. And these assumptions will form part of the artist’s material.
Here we will only deal with fabula and syuzhet.
Books by Émile Benveniste
Indoeuroopeas of Syuzhet construction “The syuzhet shapes our perception of the fabula by controlling 1 the quantity of fabula information to which we have access; 2 the degree of pertinence we can attribute to the presented information; and 3 the formal correspondence between syuzhet presentation and fabula data”.
We can distinguish “rarefied” versus “overloaded” siuzhets, either as momentary technique or all over the film. Notion of the “hypostatized ideal syuzhet” which supplies information which is relevant to the coherent and steady construction of the fabula. Sternberg’s account in Expositional Modes and Temporal order in Fiction. Retardation and redundancy in composition. Knowledge, Self-consciousness, and Communicativeness. Sternberg as inspiration again. Narration may be knowledgeable or less so; it varies in range, depth Self consciousness is “a recognition that it [the narration] is addressing an audience”.
Communicativeness exists in various possible degrees: Iinstituciones norms taking over film-specific [decorum] when [paralepses] occur, etc. All these benvenise the problem of “point of view”.
Here, “point of view” will be used in a more restricted sense and will only refer to indoeuropeae optical or auditory vantage point of a character”. Also, an analysis of “reliability” must be carried out —is it forthcoming?