GRAINGER STEVENSON ANALISIS DE SISTEMAS DE POTENCIA PDF

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Fault and load flows analysis of electricity transmission and distribution system in Casanare Colombia. This article describes a simulation of the electrical local distribution and regional transmission system of Enerca S.

The company is located in one of the major petroleum production areas in Colombia, and because of a massive growth in this sector, the electrical company expanded its networks in a radial way.

This expansion was improvised and poorly planned due to the accelerated need to meet the new demand, which resulted in stability, balance, voltage regulation, and system reliability problems. Load flow and fault analyses were carried out based on current load and demand predictions in the short and medium term. Twelve proposals were made for network and substation modernization that once implemented will significantly improve the service reliability.

In the department of Casanare, Colombia, there has been a major expansion of the oil industry, particularly in the field of exploration and extraction of crude oil, which has generated a considerable increase in ce demand above the projected level for the current population.

Rgainger growth involves the residential, industry and commerce sectors that overloads the electrical system attempting to meet the new demand, which results in overloaded and unreliable systems.

Análisis de sistemas de potencia

Analiwis Power Company Enerca S. The company offers electrical services to 98 regulated and unregulated users [ 1 ]which generates a great responsibility for improvement and constant updating of the power systems. This is because the Colombian Law of establishes that “Activities related to electricity service shall be governed by principles of efficiency, quality, continuity, adaptability, neutrality, solidarity and equality” [ 2 ].

Due to the unexpected growth in demand, power grids have expanded in an unplanned way. Currently, the company has problems of coordination protection, maintenance, regulation and voltage imbalance, making the system unreliable and prone to failure. To reduce these problems in an orderly and planned manner, we decided to model the electrical system using commercial some available computational tools used worldwide [ 34 ] to prepare projects that improve service availability.

Initially, parameters of loading capacity, transformer short-circuit impedances Zccconductor sizes, height and distance between phases, and structure types were updated. The loading parameter was measured on site using network analyzers, and the information of the remaining parameters was gathered directly from the company i. With this data, the system was entered into the graingeer tool to perform load flow and fault analyses.

Two types of simulation were carried out. In the first, we determined the actual electrical system, indicating currents Ivoltages Vapparent power S and power factor PF.

The second simulation was made with the forecast demand for the year according to the growth projection for the three geographical areas covered by the electrical system; we used a linear regression according to the growth in current years. The most critical circuits in terms of power quality and frequency faults during and were determined from modeling and system simulation, with the statistical faults generated by the quality department by Enerca S.

For stevensno five most critical circuits, different solution strategies were determined. The redesign and development of the coordination protection, which is in poor coverage, is one of the proposals to improve the quality and system reliability.

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An Electric Power System comprises a set of elements that allow the transmission of electric power from the generator to the end user. This process is defined in three stages: According to CREG, the RTS is the set of elements responsible for transmitting electricity from generation centers to consumption centers ajalisis various stages of transformation tension. Electrical substations that are responsible for interconnecting transmission lines and power plants transform different voltage levels, operating voltages below kV, which do not belong to a local distribution system [ 2 ].

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For the Power Company Enerca S. P Casanare, the transmission system is kV. The Mining and Energy Planning Unit UPME defines distribution as the graingerr of transmitting electricity through a series of lines and substations, with their associated equipment, which operate at voltages below kV that do not belong to an STR dedicated to the service of a municipal, district or local distribution system [ 7 ].

In conclusion, the distribution system is comprised of a set of elements that allow high quality, reliable and successful connection of the electrical energy that it requires [ 8 xistemas.

P Casanare, the distribution system is se P Electric Power System is completely radial; therefore, it is weak, with low reliability and robustness.

It is necessary that this type of system has a good quality of service operation and maintenance. fe

P Electrical System is divided in four zones: North, Center 1, Center 2 and South. Figure 3 shows the single-line diagram of Enerca S.

Regional Transmission System S. Regional Transmission System single-line diagram. Most of the construction units in the According to the users’ behavior history, there was observed a demand increase of 7.

In in Casanare, the electrical system had 49 substations of Measurements were carried out for voltage regulation, losses and power level in 36 of the 49 substations, both in low and medium voltage. Also, technical information about the bus configurations, power transformers, conductors, phase graingfr, insulation levels, among others, for modeling and system simulation, were taken.

This showed that some substations were working in risky condition as follows: Table 4 shows loading of the kV substations in service during Loading measurements in the In addition, the If the overloads last more than two hours a day, the useful life of the power transformers is reduced [ 1516 ]. Existing information about electrical diagrams, line and transformer loads, conductor sizes, analisiis structure types, substation capabilities, and lengths of the electrical lines analieis grids was collected.

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To compare, measure, and test the acquired data, appropriate formats to record each visit to the electrical substations were created. The inductance and capacitance parameters of the lines were determined using the Geometric Mean Radius GMR method and the conductor’s manufactures manuals. The structure type and distances between conductors were determined by visual inspection according to the number of conductor guards, followed by the identification of the five most critical circuits according to power and service quality.

In the past, field engineers of the company Enerca S. However, due to the rapid growth in demand and the need to expand the company’s networks, they encountered numerous problems mainly due to the increasing complexity and difficulty taking on-site measurements on its system, resulting in an unreliable system.

Given the availability of digital computer simulation tools, which allow reproduction of the electrical system behavior to study its response to various operating conditions, the company decided to use one of them to improve its system.

This program was acquired because many companies in the electricity sector and universities in Colombia use it. Additionally, it is an analytical tool used by several companies worldwide to design, maintain and operate electrical systems [ 9 – 12 ]. Planning a future expansion of the system entails to determine the best operation of existing systems or network reconfigurations.

In order to do so, Enerca S. Determination of circuits with more failures in the Enerca S. The current Enerca S. Between andthe system had faults and meltdowns Table 5. However, it should be noted that this sharp increase in the STR was due to the introduction to operation of the kV Aguazul substation, and the testing conducted before commissioning such substation.

The main cause of Table 6 shows the circuits with more critical fault history. This information is recorded by the control center equipment and power quality meters available in all substations of Once the parameters and data of type and line configuration, sizes and distances between conductors, impedances, reactances and TAP position of power transformers as well as the peak loads in the Two simulations were carried out; first, Event 1, with current loads and the highest demand during the day; and second, Event 2, with the medium-term projection of demand for The load forecast for the medium-term was performed according to the zone’s demand growth using the demand projection as designated by [ 17 ].

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The electrical system in the simulation program consists of all substations, lines and transformers of kV and This simulation analyzed the entire Enerca S. The load flow and fault analyses were conducted with minimal and maximum demand.

There are several methods for calculating a power flow. In this paper, we used the Newton-Raphson method because it is the most commonly used [ 813 ]. The results were similar to the values measured in-situ during the substation visits. Table 7 presents the percentage of the main substations capacity operation, showing the ones that are overload, which place them in marginal or alert state. According to Table 7the 40 MVA transformer is overloaded, which generates an emergency state because it is the most important plant in the Center zone.

When transformers are overload over a long period of time, the temperature increases considerably reducing their lifetime [ 16 ]. On the other hand, when the utility reaches maximum demand, the tension in The short circuit current Icc is one of the most important parameters, when a fault occurs on different nodes of the system, to size the conductors, transformers of current, protection relays, power interrupters, and other newly installed units.

The short circuit current defines the minimum value of interruption capacity that the elements involved during the fault must have to be able to support the Icc and clear it.

The most severe type of short circuit is the three-phase, which also produces high current values and reduces to zero the line transmission capacity. This short circuit is followed by the two-phase and the single-phase [ 8 ]. The simulations enabled the identification of the maximum stevenosn circuit currents in the Table 9 shows the results of the short circuit current in kV substations, proving they do not exceed the protection capacity; therefore, they do not represent a risk to the protection equipment.

In event 2, the departmental demand was projected untilusing the last five year’s growth rate setvenson Industry and Population.

According to the simulation results, it was determined that fifteen The short circuit currents Icc shevenson in substations repowered by will not exceed the interrupters capacity, therefore, they stevenosn not require any change.

Table 10 shows the maximum short circuit currents in kV substations. The only increase is in the Icc at the kV bus of the Yopal substation, from 7. This is because transformer loads of 40 MVA will be distributed by the new 50 MVA transformer, srevenson though it will not be harmful to the system. The analysis of the simulations results permitted the identification of six immediate proposals to stevensson the The implementation of proposals 1 and 4 would provide the system with very significant improvements to its reliability.

By implementing proposal 2, the voltage regulation in the Implementation of proposal 3 would considerably improve voltage levels in the By implementing proposals 5 and 6, the voltage levels at the other Table 13 shows the new regulation of voltage for each proposal.

In kV substations, the repowering of transformers in Paz de Ariporo and Agua Clara substations is necessary as shown in Table