A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to. Hydrogels are used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, vehicles for drug delivery, actuators for optics and fluidics, and model extracellular matrices for biological. In this investigation, we successfully prepared extremely stretchable, transparent and tough DN hydrogels by using neutral synthetic polymer–poly(vinyl alcohol).

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The alginate-to-acrylamide ratio was 1: Mechanical tests under various conditions a, Stress-stretch curves of the three types of gels, each stretched to rupture. Ad Drug Delivery Rev.

touugh All mechanical tests were performed in air, at room temperature, using a tensile machine Instron model with a N load cell. Measurement of the fracture toughness of some contact lens hydrogels. When the gel is stretched, the glassy domains remain intact, while the ionic crosslinks break and dissipate energy.

Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels

Upon hitting the membrane, the ball stretched the membrane greatly and then bounced back. When the gel contains a notch and is stretched, the deformation is inhomogeneous: Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells.


In hydrogeels gel with a copolymer of triblock chains, for example, the end blocks of different chains form glassy domains, and the midblocks of different chains form ionic crosslinks [ 22 ]. For the notch to turn into a running crack, only the chains directly ahead the notch needs to break.

New Process for 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels

Fracture and large strain behavior of self-assembled triblock copolymer gels. High-water-content and resilient PEG-containing hydrogels with low fibrotic response. Evaluation of fracture toughness toughh cartilage by micropenetration. In many applications, the stretchablf of hydrogels is often severely limited by their mechanical properties. When we cut a notch into the gel Fig. The nominal stress s is defined by the force applied on the deformed gel divided by the cross-sectional area of the undeformed gel.

New Process for 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels

The area between the loading and unloading curves of a gel gave the energy strdtchable per unit volume Fig. SternbergWtretchable WeitschiesAnne Seidlitz The solution was poured into a glass mold, The ionic crosslinker, CaSO4, was fixed at 0. The toughness of the hybrid gel can be understood by adapting a model well studied for toughened ceramics [ 25 ] and for gels of double networks of covalent crosslinks [ 2627 ].


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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. An elastic gel is known to be brittle and notch-sensitive—that is, the high stretchability and strength drop markedly when samples contain notches, or any other features that cause inhomogeneous deformation [ 19 ].

Home About Contact Newsletter Resources. Direct observation of damage zone around crack tips in double-network gels.

By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. A gel can be made tough and notch-insensitive by introducing energy-dissipating mechanisms. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Support Center Support Center. yough

Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels. The stress and the stretch at rupture were, respectively, kPa and 23 for the hybrid gel, 3. By contrast, in a polyacrylamide hydrogel, the polyacrylamide chains form a network by covalent crosslinks. Maldonado-Codina C, Efron N.