Abstract. The aim of this paper is to describe morphological characteristics of fresh- water triclads in Herzegovina and to provide a key for their. 1 Introduction. The polyclads are the most primitive free living flatworms of the phylum Platyhelminthes. These worms are dorso-ventrally. -Eight new species belonging to the genus Cycloporus (Platyhelminthes. Polycladida,. Euryleptidae) are described from Australasian waters including eastern.

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Table S1 were analysed from each location. A phylogeny for grasshoppers of platyhelmintes genus Chitaura Orthoptera: Observations on the freshwater triclads of North Wales. Red corresponds to haplotype A, dark blue corresponds to haplotype B, and brown corresponds to haplotype C.

Microturbellarians (Platyhelminthes and Acoelomorpha) in Brazil: invisible organisms?

The potential distribution predicted by climatic variables based modelling shows a preference for coastal areas and fits well with the observed data. However, we can speculate that the presence of haplotype C in heteroplasmic individuals in the central regions juenal indicate its origin is there, and its prevalence in the s01, s02 and s05 populations could be the result of a founder effect during colonisation. Please review our privacy policy. Individuals collected from Crete s55Greece, also possess a copulatory apparatus.

We have estimated haplotype and nucleotide diversity of cytochrome oxidase I within and among individuals along the species distribution of a broad sample of D.

Phylum Platyhelminthes – Oxford Scholarship

The species presents 3 most frequent haplotypes, differing in a maximum of 11 base pairs. This study aimed to develop student observation-worksheet using CAM of subsubject Phylum Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, and Annelida as well as describe theoretical feasibility of student observation-worksheets using CAM of subsubject Phylum Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, and Annelida.

Int J Dev Biol. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Dugesia sicula is the only species of its genus not presenting an endemic or restricted distribution within the Mediterranean area.

Sampling sites for D. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. Origin and expansion A recent study [ 8 ] emphasised that D. Potential distribution of D.


Formation of arcuate orogenic belts in the western Mediterranean region; pp. Species distribution and future expansion Under the hypothesis that D. Biol Olatyhelminthes Linn Soc.

Contrasting with this wide distribution the species presents extremely low variability for the COI gene [ 8 ] among populations located hundreds of kilometres apart. Further contribution to the taxonomy and biogeography of the subgenus Dugesia Platyhelminthes: Gustav Fischer Verlag; On Dugesia gonocephala from Western Europe.

The black dots represent locations with polymorphic individuals. Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipesa clonal aquatic plant.

Problemi di zoogeografia tirrenica studiati nelle Planarie. Figure S1 Schematic representation of the spreading of a new mutation in fissiparous organisms. Following the same reasoning, one would not expect to find heteroplasmy, or different copies of mitochondrial genes within an individual in sexual organisms.

As expected from their fissiparous mode of reproduction, in half of all the analysed localities many individuals have multiple heteroplasmic haplotypes.

There are species of microturbellarians registered for Brazil, with records distributed in 12 states. Approximately ten colonies from each individual were amplified and sequenced using the T3 and T7 primers included in the kit.

There is still one more thing in our case that provides support for all the copies being functional, in the cloned individuals presenting heteroplasmy, we found copies of at least two or the three most frequent haplotypes A, B and C that are also found alone in some individuals and in whole populations, and that do not present stop codons, no traces of being non-functional Additional file 2: In the northwestern populations northern Catalonia and Franceall playyhelminthes sequenced individuals showed haplotype B one individual was polymorphic but likely non-heteroplasmic.

Phylum Platyhelminthes

However, in the case of D. Moreover, the cloning results showed that haplotypes A, B and C were present simultaneously in platyehlminthes of platyhelminthfs specimens Additional file 2: Heteroplasmy, the presence of different copies of the mitochondrial genome within the cells of an individual, has been reported for several taxa [ 2434 – 39 ] and was an expected outcome in the case of fissiparous flatworms, where somatic heteroplasmy would be inherited through clonal reproduction Additional file 1: However, several populations of D.


They can be a consequence of past sexual reproduction episodes, or a result of the appearance of the third haplotype in individuals that already presented the other two. Specimens from s39 and s36 exhibited sexual reproduction.

Results The species presents 3 most frequent haplotypes, differing in a maximum of 11 base pairs. Abstract Background Dugesia sicula is the only species of its genus not presenting an endemic or restricted distribution within the Mediterranean area.

It mostly comprises fissiparous populations asexual reproduction by body division platyhelmintbes regenerationmost likely sexually sterile, and characterized by an extremely low genetic diversity interpreted as the consequence of a recent anthropic expansion. Table 2 Primers used for amplification and sequencing. Haplotype B was present in individuals from 18 populations, the majority of which were found northwest of the Mediterranean.

Continuing dispersal of freshwater triclads Platyhelminthes; Turbellaria in Britain with particular reference to lakes. Table S2exhibited at least one of jyrnal most frequent haplotypes A or Pllatyhelminthesand all of the individuals showed at least one unique haplotype Additional file 1: Nucleotide and haplotype diversity platyhelminhhes The DnaSP v5. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Finally four independent climatic variables were used: Explaining the genetic variability of asexuals through population genetic models.

A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists.

Heterogeneity of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences in the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica. Am J Hum Genet.

To test the functionality of the sequences obtained in this study we calculated the expected number of changes per codon site in the case of a non-functional sequence 1: